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Dana Bell

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Everything posted by Dana Bell

  1. Hi George, The F4U-1D limited its use of Interior Green to the cockpit. Other enclosed areas were either one coat of yellow zinc chromate or two coats of yellow zinc chromate. (Vought had an exemption from BuAer and stamped "1st Coat" in black after the first coat. A second coat would change the appearance of the stamp.) Cheers, Dana
  2. I can't tell you which P-40 versions carried the lights, but they were flood lights rather than simple blue lights. Turned on for night flying, they illuminated the upper surfaces of the wings. While not actually blue, they could appear bluish in daylight. Cheers, Dana
  3. The National Archives have finally reopened, so right now I'm trying to catch up with two years' worth of research in eight months. Next summer I plan to have two interns running the F4U-4 files for me; with luck the -4 book will be ready in early 2024. A quick review of the F4U-5 files suggests that much of the material I'd need to do a good job hasn't yet been processed. If that doesn't happen in the next few years, I suspect another author/researcher will have to take that project. Cheers, Dana
  4. When selling my Corsair Cockpits book, I've had a number of requests to work out a lower delivery price on the eBay Global Shipping Program. While that part is out of my control, I've bundled my three Corsair books to (at least) offer a better value for the nearly same shipping costs. You can find the bundle here: https://www.ebay.com/itm/384988124123 I wish I could bring back the global book rate, but (again) no such luck. I hope this helps! Cheers, Dana
  5. I could help, but I haven't painted a kit in so long I've no idea what MM Interior Green looks like. But, if it looks like the real Interior Green, it's too dark. Here's an explanation: http://www.clubhyper.com/reference/showandtell1yellowgreendb_1.htm My understanding is that the Yellow Green was supposed to be the finish coat for the entire interior, but some photos suggest the skin was unpainted Alclad. Cheers, Dana
  6. There are only two possibilities: RAF Cockpit Grey Green or US Yellow Green (zinc chromate tinted with black and aluminum). Bronze Green and Dull Dark Green were not considered at the time; Curtiss Cockpit Green and Interior Green did not exist in 1940/41. While I'd lean toward Yellow Green as most likely, I've no proof that the British color wasn't used. Cheers, Dana
  7. Morning all! What we're seeing is a rare color image of the second version of Light Blue 23. The original color was on the paper Quartermaster Corps color card and was much lighter and greener - more of a turquoise. In 1934 the Air Corps created a set of metal color plates with this stronger blue, but used the same name and number in correspondence, causing a few years of confusion. It's really a great shot! Cheers, Dana
  8. I'm going to skip this one. Cruise's flight jacket has a Nationalist Chinese star on it, but the ChiComs insisted it be removed digitally. If they get to have that much influence in a movie I want to see, I'll just have to influence whether I see it at all... Cheers, Dana
  9. I understand, Frank. eBay sellers don't get to see the shipping costs for the Global Shipping Program - I agree that is rather excessive! In the short term, you might "buddy-up" with a few friends to order multiple copies and split the shipping costs. In the somewhat longer term, I hope to work out a European distribution system this summer (though that's not guaranteed). Cheers, Dana
  10. My new book is now in from the printer - it's a guide to the many revisions to the F4U-1 family's cockpits. I wrote this as a limited-edition book for the true Corsair enthusiast (hence the "Rivet Counter" series title). It's 72 glossy pages, full color throughout - all of which explains the price. Not for the casual observer, but hopefully a good fit for many here. It's on Amazon in the US only: https://www.amazon.com/dp/0578376423/ref=olp-opf-redir?aod=1 and eBay (which also allows the global shipping program option: https://www.ebay.com/itm/384794141075 Next up is the Rivet Counter Guide to pre-war SOC Seagull colors and markings. Cheers, Dana
  11. The 1st Helicopter Squadron at Andrews had been scheduled to transition last summer, but those blue/white/gold UH-1Ns are still flying over the house every day. At least I now understand where the holdup is coming from... Cheers, Dana
  12. Cool footage - I'll bet THAT flushed the VC out of their hiding places! Cheers, Dana
  13. I believe with today's cultural shifts we could be looking at Stearpersons... Cheers, Dana
  14. From the video, note that the cowl flap lever was originally the same size as the two adjacent levers. The longer lever in the tech orders was added on aircrat starting with: F4U-1s 17517 and JT169; F3A-1 04575; and FG-1 13067. (The rivet counter in me loves the details, but I don't expect to see them in models.) Cheers, Dana
  15. They're ajustable - the flap controls are are the front of the right side console. Cheers, Dana
  16. Hi Sophie, I've just finished artwork on this subject for a monograph on cockpit details for the F4U-1 thru F4U-1D. (The short-run booklet is expected to be available next month.) I can't share the images here, but there are three features you'll need to watch for: - the right side windows are a kick-out panel to allow the pilot to escape. There's a red handle inside the vertical center frame that allows the pilot to release the lock at four corners - the normal release for opening and closing the sliding canopy is a horizontal handle hanging from cables over the pilot's head. The pilot pulls the handle, which releases the canopy locks, allowing the the pilot to slide the canopy forward or back. The cables run around the canopy's forward frame, bottom edges on the canopy rail to the top forward of the mirror. From outside the aircraft there's a black push button on top of the framework, forward of the mirror. - there are two red handles above the canopy rail inside the forward frame; the pilot pulls them away from the frame and pushes them forward to jettison the canopy in an emergency. Cables run from the front handles to the after releases. Sorry I can't share the drawings, but I hope this will help you understand any photos you find. Cheers, Dana
  17. Hi Dave, I'm interpreting what we're seeing as a slightly domed hardstand - helpful for the runoff during those torrential rains. The background aircraft is simply on the other side of the "hill." Cheers, Dana
  18. Hi Jay, I had assembled a pile of data on Corsair radios for the 2 books, but details became too complicated, and there was little room for the number of photos needed to illustrate everything. Here are my rough notes from a variety of sources and documents (I think you'll understand why it was so hard to illustrate all the variations: RADIOS COMMAND SETS and ANTENNAS GF-12/RU-17 – radios installed on first 123 F4U-1s. It is listed with two transmitter coil sets, 3000-4525 KC and 6000-9050 KC. The RU-17 receiver coil sets do cover from the LF band to 9050 KC, but have a coverage gap between 4525 KC and and 5200 KC. After 1941, the new-fangled GT/RBD (later renamed ATA/ARA) eclipsed the GF/RU, although the "roogy-foo" remained in service with front-line units well into WW-II. The ATA/ARA itself was to be eclipsed by AN/ARC-5. ATA/ARA – voice equipment. antecedent of the AN/ARC-5, with initial deployment in 1940. The major units of the ARA are five receivers covering 0.19 to 9.1 MHz, each unit with its own dynamotor power supply. The major units of the ATA are five transmitters covering 2.1 to 9.1 MHz, using a common transmitter dynamotor/screen modulator unit. Most units were made by the Aircraft Radio Corporation (USN manufacturer's code CBY). Many units were also made by Stromberg-Carlson (USN manufacturer's code CCT). ATB/ARB – AN/ARC-5 – command set - MF, HF, VHF. Improved ARA/ATA. The AN/ARC-5 command set was used by the US Navy from the latter part of World War II into the post-war era. It was fitted in many different aircraft types for communication between aircraft, navigation, and communication back to base. Units were available that covered much of the MF, HF, and VHF spectrum. SCR-274-N – Army command set adopted in 1941 a reduced set that was electrically almost identical to their ARA/ATA equivalents, except for receiver output and modulator sidetone audio transformer output impedance. It was mechanically almost identical except for most later units being left unpainted aluminum in contrast to the black wrinkle finish of the Navy sets. CBY – Aircraft Radio Corp code for ATA/ARA R-1147 – British - not needed after 14 Apr 44 - appears to be VHF and homing, possibly command set also VS-10585 – (1)(39-1/4") original plastic/phenolic mast (this mast can be shortened by cutting 6 inches to end with 33-1/4 inches CVS-6223 – (2)(33-1/4) shortened VS-10585 plastic/phenolic mast VS-33585 – (3)(32-1/2") metal mast 3/4-inch shorter than CVS-6223 - (this mast can also be shortened by 8 inches to 24 inches; leaves 16 inches over canopy) - to be introduced after raised cockpit CVS-8407 – (4)(24") VS-33585 metal mast - shortened by 8" VS-10582 – (5) fixed antenna mast installation 26 May 43, urgently needed by sq in Norfolk area VS-37585 – 6) short mast (equivalent to shortened VS-33585) VS-33586 – (7) same mast, but with thicker gauge aluminum sheet VHF SETS and ANTENNAS AN/ARC-1 VHF - developed from ARC-4, far more sophisticated AN/ARC-4 VHF voice WE-233A (233A) Western Electric VHF voice transceiver unit - designated AN/ARC-4 AN74A AN74BX wooden insulating section AN704A pregwood mast expected to replace AN74BX AN104AX VHF mast to be substituted for AN74BX, VS-33527 - differs from AN104A only in color VS-33507 "after mast" IFF SETS and ANTENNAS ABA-1 IFF ABC IFF ABD/ABE series of IFF transponders (ABD, ABD-1, ABD-2, ABD-3, ABE, ABE-1) ABE/ABK IFF ABK-1 IFF AN/APX-1 IFF transponder to replace ABK AN/APX-2 IFF HOMING SETS and ANTENNAS ZB homing equipment ZB-3 homing equipment redesignated AN/ARR-1 ZB-X homing equipment redesignated AN/ARR-2 by 4 Jun 43 VS-17051 new (Oct 44) homing antenna base OTHER SYSTEMS AN/APG-4 L-Band LAB System (used with APN-1) AN/APN-1 altimeter AN/APS-4 radar AN/APS-13 Tail warning radar tested in F3A BuNo 04691 AN/ASG-10 toss bombing director AYD CHRONOLOGY 4 Aug 42 – request permission for contractors to install ATA/ARA in lieu of GF-12/RU-12 for first 324 F4U-1s. 27 Oct 42 – inspection of radios on BuNo 02156 (C/N 4). Includes IFF (move control box), phenolic antenna mast (reinforce root), ZB homing adapter with retractable antenna. Command set not identified. 5 Nov 42 – retractable ZB-3 antenna was designed by Vought-Sikorsky 8 Dec42 – plans to install 700 R-1147 radios in British Corsairs, with Brit-furnished Type 68 or 91 mast antenna and alternate antenna located with ZB antenna. This will also apply to 420 British F3A-1s. <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> 2 Feb 43 – antenna mast failure - contractor redesigned mast shortened by 6 inches; new mast appears to begin installation in 02307 (C/N 155), though this may represent a single installation. 2 Feb 43 – request to relocate ATA/ARA to make room for future installation of ZB-X and VHF. 8 Feb 43 – 02280 (C/N 0128) shows high level of noise on ATA/ARA 11 Feb 43 – Anacostia pix showing relocation of radios on 02280 20 Feb 43 – redesigned [phenolic] mast does not deminish reception 26 Feb 43 – request for AN74BX antenna mast for VHF unit ot ATA/ARA. Also, see if commmand set antenna can be re-rigged to VHF mast 1 Apr 43 – 10 fixed ZB antenna were shipped to Goodyear by mistake; shift them to another project 3 Apr 43 – relocate ATA/ARA and ZB-3 to make room for VHF set and antenna 14 Apr 43 – present installation will not accommodate VHF components of ATA/ARA; engineering data on VHF SCR-274-N not available from Army until recently - change could not be initiated until complete data was available 19 Apr 43 – redesign fuselage structure to fit VHF radio beginning FG-1 BuNo 14292 (-1A) 27 Apr 43 – Raised cabin is top priority!! Can't give schedule for shortened plastic mast; hope to introduce metal mast soon, with or shortly after raised cabin. Shortening of plastic mast to be covered in Service Bulletin 226 6 May 43 – CominC and CincPac demand VHF as soon as possible 7 May 1943 – Anacostia tests 3 new ATA/ARA antenna designs. Best is fuselage to VHF mast to tail to left wingtip [seen in photos of 17-F-21 and 17-F-4 on Bunker Hill in June 43] 11 May 43. notes that GF/RU was installed in first 123 F4U-1s - replace this with ATA/ARA [lists end of GF/RU as 02278, which was C/N 126] 13 May 43 – shortening of masts. All birdcages started with phenolic masts (which need to be replaced with metal or shortened). Raised cockpit started with phenolic, but switched to metal (also needing to be shortened) on following serials: F4U 17930, FG 13311, F3A 04673. Contractors will install shortened metal masts in production on: F4U 56184, FG 13792, F3A 08667. 1 Jun 43 – Anacostia (for VF-17) to install WE-233A VHF transceiver and AN74BX antenna as prototype installations AND install MF antenna system #4. return to VF-17 with equipment after mockup and flight test. 8 Jun 43 – AN74BX being installed by Vought for VHF - permission sought to also use that mast for MF antenna. 10 Jun 43 – permission granted 12 Jun 43 – WE-233A approved for CAG-17; plans to install in CAGs 30, 31, and 32 - PROOF that F4Us were going to carriers 17 Jun 43 – contractor to check cables in ABK-1 IFF equipment 15 Jul 43 – ABK cable 24-inches too short when set is relocated 23 Jun 43 – AN74BX mast installed 2 inches forward of bulkhead 218, 7/8th inch to port of centerline. MF antenna runs from lead-through insulator to point 7.5 inces aft of strain insulator on VHF mast, to forward side of rubber strain link to mast atop rudder, to mast atop pitot tube 30 Jun 43 – per VF-17, ARA/ATA antenna to pitot shown markedly unsatisfactory due to breeakage when wings are folded, Original installation worked up to 85 miles, possibly farther. Blackburn asks that future tests be performed by another unit, as VF-17 is preparing for enbarkation. 8 Jul 43 – based on VF-17 comments, ComAirLant asks to retain forward mast in production 12 Jul 43 – resume fore-aft installation 17 Jul 43 – re: 223A equipment to be installed in F4Us for Air Groups 5 and 17 - quality control failures of 4 out of 6 sets received 30 Jul 43 – per 12 Jul TWX, pitot mast antenna will be discontinued and eliminated as soon as possible 6 Aug 43 – ZB-3 should read AN/ARR-1 7 Aug 43 – AN74BX failed on first test flight (12 Aug notes that no other failures have been reported) 7 Aug 43 – CVA told to revert to MF antenna mast forward of cockpit ASAP 18 Sep 43 – VF-17 notes new all-metal mast VS-10582 has broken on two planes (both 1As) 6 Oct 43 – ABD/ABE IFF no longer required - eliminate antenna plug, horizontal V antenna, and feeder wire. Contractors to make change in as many aircraft as possible without delaying deliveries 16 Oct 43 – contractor reinforcing antenna mast with new 24-inch design, leaving 16 inches over cabin 20 Oct 43 – FG-1s currently have ATB/ARB installed so that antenna relay is inaccessible to pilot 3 Nov 43 – F4U-1 BuNo 55820 assigned for prototype installation of AN/ARC-5 9 Nov 43 – second AN74BX failure 15 Nov 43 – SB 369 will be issued to replace plastic masts with metal masts which may be obtained as spares. NEW shortened metal masts are available for production and replacements 17 Nov 43 – AN74BX to be replaced by AN704A as soon as can be obtained 18 Nov 43 – ATA/ARA to be superceded by AN/ARC-5, though control and junction boxes are interchangeable with older model. WE-233A is only VHF currently available 22 Nov 43 – shortage of ATA/ARA will mean contractors will have to use SCR-247-N when preferred equipment supplies are exhausted. Contractors are to switch to AN/ARC-5 not later than 30 days after that equipment arrives at their plants. For mockup purposes, BuAer will send ARC-5 VHF components to Goodyear and Brewster 27 Nov 43 – ARC-5 is first VHF to be factory installed - should enter aircraft production lines about 25 Jan 44 29 Nov 43 – BuNo 55820 still expected to test installation of ARC-5 3 Dec 43 – Vought currently testing two new mast designs, one of steel and one of aluminum 18 Dec 43 – SB 369, shortening of metal mast to 24 inches. Raised cockpit started with phenolic, but switched to metal (also needing to be shortened) on following serials: F4U 17930, FG 13311, F3A 04675. Contractors will install shortened metal masts in production on: F4U 56184 - shortened metal mast on FG and F3A not yet scheduled 29 Dec 43 – BuAer still waiting for information on new antenna masts <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> 15 Jan 44 – ARC-5 to be installed in 751st FG-1 [BuNo 13742] 15 Jan 44 – Flight test of ARC-5 and ARR-2; AN74BX antenna used (Paint on the wood insulating section of the antenna was removed) 26 Jan 44 – 298 modified ARC-5 receivers will be shipped for first VHF installation on 4 Feb 44 3 Feb 44 – shortening of metal mast VS-33586 by cutting off 8" begins on FG #801 BuNo 13792 4 Feb 44 – Substitute AN104AX for AN74BX (VS-33527) beginning on FG #751 BuNo 13742 7 Feb 44 – delete ABD/ABE series IFF on FG #401 BuNo 13392 11 Feb 44 – APN altimeter tests 16 Feb 44 – ABC/ABE IFF has been eliminated beginning #401 BuNo 13392 21 Feb 44 – revisions to ATA/ARA beginning FG 652 BuNo 13533 21 Feb 44 – new ID stamping on SCR-274-N used until ARC-5 available starting FG 652 #13533 23 Feb 44 – BuAer change 107 in F4U 49760m FG 13742, and F3A 08649 (and subseqent on all) NOT required since those aircraft have ARC-5 incorporated; change 107 mandatory for any earlier aircraft that do not have ARC-5 10 Mar 44 – F4Us arriving in SoPac have 3 receiver racks, but need 4 14 mar 44 – SoPac needs radio range receiver and ARR-2 for maximum navigational aid 14 Mar 44 – BuAer plans to install range receivers once approved 15 Mar 44 – MCR 429M installs APX-1 instead of ABK - begin FG 800 BuNo 13791 16 Mar 44 – combined MCR 165/369: metal mast 33585 first installed at factory on: F4U 17930 F3A 04673 FG 13111 factory shortened on F4U 56184 F3A 08667 FG 13792 3 Apr 44 – remove ZB homing relay and control box when used with ATA/ARA - save 4.12 pounds. Incorporated by contractors beginning with: F4U 17647 and JT195; F3A 04624; FG 13217 may be accomplished on earlier aircraft if ATA/ARA installed: F4U 02153-17646; F3A 04515-04623; FG 12992-13216; RAF JT100-JT194 6 Apr 44 – notes inadequate supply of ARC-5 components 6 Apr 44 – changes in ABK IIF equipment begin FG #750, BuNo 13741 7 Apr 44 – first note on grounding of MF antenna with canopy open 7 Apr 44 – replace AN74BX with AN104A or AX or install AN104A or AX (A and AX differ only in color install (1st VHF): F4U 02153-02476 replace and install: F4U 02477> F3A 04515> FG 12992 (minor fitting and position changes in later aircraft install at factory F4U 49660> F3A 08640> FG 13742> 10 Apr 44 – installation of VHF ARC-5 and homing ARR-2 in place of ATA/ARA and ZB-3. FG 13741> 10 Apr 44 – install AN-104AX in FG 13742> 13 Apr 44 – remove GF/RU from first 126 F4U-1s (02153 - 02278) – modify installation to accommodate future ARC-5, install ATA/ARA - F4U 02153-02736; 03802-03841; 17392-18191; 55784-56483; 49660-49759. F3A 04515-04774; 08550-08639. FG 12992-13741. – eliminate ZB relay and control box - 02153-02736; 03802-03841; 17392-17646. F3A 04515-04623. FG 12992-13216, – install ARC-5 and ARR-2 at factory: F4U 49760-50659; 57084>. F3A 08640>. FG 13742> 19 Apr 44 – provisions for installing ARC-5 and ARR-2 25 Apr 44 – instructions to Goodyear to develop waterproof covering in front of radios 29 Apr 44 – service reports of grounding of MF radios with canopy open 5 May 44 – Goodyear modification of IFF mounting bracket 9 May 44 – 50 x ARC-5 assemblies to be shipped to Goodyear 13 May 44 – Service Change 136: Shortening of metal (equivalent to CV SBs 165 & 369) and phenolic masts (equivilent to CV SB 226) metal F4U 17930 thru 17951 17963 thru 18081 18107 thru 18121 55784 thru 55838 55864 thru 55943 55969 thru 56048 56074 thru 56163 metal F3A 04673 thru 04774 08551 thru 08666 metal FG 13111 thru 13791 Where spare metal masts are available, they may be used to replace the phenolic mast, otherwise shorten phenolic mast on: Phenolic F4U 02153 thru 02736 03802 thru 03841 17392 thru 17591 17617 thru 17696 17722 thru 17751 17777 thru 17846 17872 thru 17929 Phenolic F3A 04515 thru 04673 Phenolic FG 12992 thru 13291 13293 thru 13298 13300 thru 13308 13310 Short metal mast intended to be installed by mfgs on: F4U 56184 thru 56483 49660 thru 50659 57084 & subsequent F3A 08667 & subsequent FG 13792 & subsequent 16 May 44 – in order to comply with operational requirements, it will be necessary to replace the VHF components of the ARC-5 with the ARC-1 VHF transmitter/receiver. Goodyear will begin with airplane 2601 [BuNo 76739]. Installation will then comprise ARC-5 transmitter and receiver, ARR-2 navigation receiver, ARC-1 transitter/receiver, and APX-1 IFF equip (with alternate provisions for ABK and ABA-1. 3rd receiver position in 3-unit rack is to be left vacant but is to be wired for ARC-5 3-6 mc receiver 27 May 44 – Goodyear was authorized to install provisions for ABA-1, but this has not been accomplished in production due to low priority Jun 44 – prototype APG-4 installed starboard of APN-1 radio altimeter on F4U-1 55976. 8 Jun 44 – problem notes on installation of APN-1 with APX-1, ABA-1, ARC-5, and ARR-2 9 Jun 44 – Goodyear to make provision for APX-1 IFF in place of present ABK 10 Jun 44 – government-furnished AN-104AX antenna mast to be substituted for contractor-furnished AN-74BX (VS-33527) beginning on #750 BuNo 13741 14 Jun 44 – Vought looking into grounding of antenna by cockpit hood. Notch introduced on F4U-1 BuNo 57804 and all F4U-4 until ARC-1 is installed. MCR 605 will address adding notch to aircraft in service 20 Jun 44 – change for installation of ABA-1 when ARC-5 is installed: rework radio floor and radio deck, relocate IFF control box, and rework ABA antenna installation 21 Jun 44 – AirLant standardizes F4U-1 radios as ATA/ARA, ARC-4, ABK (to be replaced by APX when enough are available), and ARR-2 29 Jun 44 – IFF provision for APX-1 in place of ABF to begin on FG-1 BuNo 13791 5 Jul 44 – ZB adapter relay was removed by contractor on FG-1 #228 BuNo 13217 and subsequent 14 Jul 44 – ARC-5 and ARR-2 ferry installation permits low-frequency range flying; installation may be modified by fleet for combat operation. Found on following aircraft and subsequent: F4U BuNo 49760, F3A BuNo 08649, and FG BuNo 13741. 17 Jul 44 – appears that F4U-1 BuNos 50370 thru 50469 have new homing antenna base VS-17501 17 Jul 44 – all US raised cockpit -1 Corsairs are to have cockpit hood antenna grounding cutout 18 Jul 44 – VHF components of ARC-5 are to be replaced by ARC-1 to comply with operational requirements. Engineering to be provided by Goodyear, Service Bulletin to then be prepared by Vought 25 Jul 44 – Install ATA/ARA and ZB homing adapters in lieu of GF12/RU17 and make provisions for IFF on entire first production block of FG-1s: 12992 thru 19287 27 Jul 44 – request for installation of ARC-1 in F4U-1 aircraft, replacing ARC-5 Aug 44 – F4U-1D noted with ARC-5 and ARR-2 - no clear note on IFF; WAS IT INTEGRATED? Aug 44 – installation of ARC-1 begun 28 Jul 44, completed 17 Aug 44 5 Aug 44 – substitute AN-104AX for AN-74BX on F4U-1s 56433 and subsequent 7 Sep 44 – AirLant standardizes ATA/ARA, ARC-4, ABK (or APX-1 when available) and ARR-2. Corsairs with ARC-5 will not require ATA/ARA and ARC-4. When ATA/ARA supply is exhausted, ARC-5 (less VHF) will be substituted 21 Sep 44 – APS-13 tail warning tested in F3A 04691 30 Sep 44 – ABA-1 radio installation in place of IFF equipment 3 Oct 44 – AN-104AX instead of AN-74BX for F4U-1 56266, 56433 and subsequent 17 Oct 44 – SCR-274N radio was installed in FG-1s 669 [13660] through 750 [13741]; some of the gear was also installed in earlier aircraft 21 Oct 44 – five F4U-1Ds have new homing antenna bases: VS-17501 31 Oct 44 – APX-1 to replace ABK as IFF equipment 5 Nov 44 – ARR-2 retactable antenna failures noted 6 Nov 44 – to provide 10-channel VHF communications, ARC-5 VHF components to be replaced by ARC-1 on following aircraft F4U-1 49760 thru 50079 50151 thru 50229 50265 thru 50324 50360 thru 50459 50496 thru 50574 50610 thru 50659 57084 thru 57108 57144 thru 57214 57250 thru 57983 82178 thru 82852 total of 2192 aircraft F3A-1 11163 thru 11293 total of 131 aircraft FG-1 13742 thru 14591 total of 850 aircraft 21 Nov 44 – Flight test of ARC-1 in F4U-1D 57534 13 Dec 44 – Goodyear installs upper radio deck for ARC-1 in 76446 and subs 15 Dec 44 – APG-4 tested in F4U-1 55976 28 Dec 44 – Norfolk to install ARC-1 in 63 F4U-1s for AG-85 <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> 18 Jan 45 – FG-1D getting a waterproof seal of rubberized cloth; F4U-1D no longer in production 22 Jan 45 – Preparatory installation for APS-4 radar, APX-2 IFF, and APN-1 radar altimeter authorized in F4U-1D 50360 and subs and FG-1D 76140 and subs. Not applicable to F3A-1 ARC-1 installed in FG-1D 76447 and subs 24 Jan 45 – Willow Grove to mockup installation of ASG-10 toss bombing radar in F4U-1 25 Jan 45 – VMF-124 reports ZB antenna picking up grease and dirt 1 Feb 45 – to eliminate IFF interference with ARC-5 7 Feb 45 – test to install plywood fin with integral VHF antenna 9 Feb 45 – critical nature of ARC-1 means that installation will cover only aircraft bound for AirPac. AirLant will use ARC-4 or -5 13 Feb 45 – retractable ZB antenna cannot be bent or dirty without chance of breakage. Recommending change in control 14 Mar 45 – failure of VS-33586 forward mast; recommend use of the after mast 30 Mar 45 – Vought claims no other reports of VS-33586 mast failures, but will study use of aft mast for MHF 6 Apr 45 – tests of ASG-10 on 8 FG-1s in squadron service 17 Apr 45 – retractable ARR-1 antenna to be replaced by fixed unit 24 Apr 45 – on FG-1, ARC-1 antenna lead-in moved from right side to left side on 76446 (rework) and 92041 (in production) 28 Apr 45 – move APX-1 code selector in F4U-1 57184 and subs, and FG-1 76140 and subs. Not applicable to F3A. 1 May 45 – do not rig MHF antenna to aft mast; performance is diminished and all communications could be carried away by loss of one mast 12 May 45 – relocation of remote transmitting compass 17 May 45 – replace retracting ZBX antenna with fixed type 22 May 45 – Jacksonville local changes to install ARC-1 vice ARC-4 as soon as -1 is available; see serials in Bu Change 201 26 May 45 – Jax local changes to install APX-1 in lieu of ABK per service bulletin 420 [approved below on 5 Jul] 28 May 45 – Jax local changes to install ARC-1 and ARC-5 per Service Change 201 [rejected below on 5 Jul] 14 Jun 45 – Contractors have been asked to reinforce forward antenna 16 Jun 45 – install ABA-1 IFF control bracket (1939 FG-1s: 76162-76739; 87788-88453; 92007-92701) and new remote control switch (1860 FG-1s: 76241-76739; 87788-88453; 92007-92701) 18 Jun 45 – install cables for ABK IFF equipment as relocated for ARC-5 in 1251 FG-1s: 13741-14991 26 Jun 45 – 20 Mar had authorized local installation of ARC-1 if available. 25 May authorized ARC-4 in lieu of ARC-1. Current desire is ARC-1 for all reconditioned Corsairs, but due to scarcity, this will be installed only in "those Corsairs for which it is mandatory," and ARC-4 will be installed in all others 27 Jun 45 – notes three production designs for MF masts: original plastic, .064 aluminum alloy, and .081 aluminum alloy. Third design is marked improvement, but continues to break. Mast failures are most prevalent in those mfg'd by Brown-Morse Co, and somewhat better in those mfg'd by Hedstrom-Union Co. Vought recommendation for new mast made of .083 steel, heat treated to 125,000 psi. Weight increase will be 1.8 pounds 5 Jul 45 – response to earlier JAX orders of 26 and 28 May: use of ABK or APX-1 IFF approved. Replacement of ATA/ARA with ARC-5 not approved as there are not enough ARC-5 spares available; only advantage is with subsequent installation of ARC-1 VHF 10 Aug 45 – Make provisions to install APX-1 in lieu of ABK: 1201 FG-1s 13791-14991 and 102 FG-1s 76140-76241 10 Aug 45 – revise radio compartment door panel on 1750 FG-1s 76551-76739, 87788-88453, 92007-92701, 67055-67254 and an additional 200 FG-1s 67055-67254 10 Aug 45 – install ARC-1 in lieu of ARC-5 on 1854 FG-1s: 76447-76739, 87788-88453, 92007-92701, and 67055-67254. Relocate antenna lead to left side on same aircraft. 11 Aug 45 – appears to relate to "ADA-1" installation 17 Aug 45 – install ARC-5 in lieu of ATA/ARA in 1251 FG-1s: 13741-14991. Install new radio brackets in 700 FG-1s: 14292-14991 4 Sep 45 – reinstallation instructions for ARC-5 and ARC-1 at JAX 25 Oct 45 – antenna AT-8/AR may be used for APX-1 and -2 antenna rods; cut off to length of 16 inches <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> 18 May 48 – revision (details unknown) of May 45 Service Bulletin for removal of ATA/ARA (or SCR-274-N, if that was installed), rework of radio floor, installation of VHF (ARC-5), and relocation of ZB homing adapter, ARR-2, and IFF (ABK-1). Aft antenna mast is AN104AX. ARC-5 transmitters: VHF and MHF. ARC-5 receivers: MHF and VHF. 1 x ARR-2 receiver. This arrangement to be installed (should be past tense) on following and subsequent: F4U-1A 49760 and JT425; FG-1 13741A and KD161; F3A-1A 11163 and JS654. BTW, the photo on page 19 of Pictorial #7 was one of the first F4U-1s, photographed on 20 May 1942. The radio equipment is there, but very limited. Pictorial #8 has a later shot of an F4U-1A's radio gear on page 27. One of these days I'd love to take a week, collect all of my Corsair radio photos and drawings, and write up the story - just for my own amusement! Until then, I hope these notes will help you determine which radio switches you'd like to include in your F4U-1A. Cheers, Dana
  19. Hi Chuck, The PB4Y-1 squadrons book is a great ref, but beware the color call outs - nearly all of them are wrong. When you decide which aircraft you want to model, note it here and one of us can help with the colors. Cheers, Dana
  20. As pretty as this warbird is, the scheme combines elements from far too many time periods to appear accurate for the 1930s or '40s... Cheers, Dana
  21. Hi Johnny, Tech orders and specifications were often more like guidelines than actual rules (not unlike the pirate code). The actual colors used would be negotiated between the AAF factory representative and the manufacturer, usually with permission of Wright Field. The P-47 was particularly screwed up in the tech orders, since the May 1943 formula and August 1944 formulas didn't give the ratio of black to zinc chromate. With the shortage of aluminum powder needed to produce the original Yellow Green cockpit color, several companies instead used Dull Dark Green lacquer in their fighters - Republic appears to be one of them. There were variations in Dull Dark Green lacquers, and it's possible other lacquers were substituted. Douglas, for example, had been using duPont Pine Green since before the war - it was this color that led the US military to switch to darker greens. What we see in photos and surviving aircraft may not be an exact match for DDG, but it's certainly nothing like aluminized zinc chromate, Yellow Green, or Interior Green. The AFM and NASM P-47s both have DDG, as does 42-22687. The photos of Dottie Mae seem to show the same color. Curtiss seems to have used Interior Green when they finally got P-47Gs into production. The military began dropping the use of DDG in mid-1943, but several manufacturers seemed to have stocked up or just preferred using lacquers to tinted primers. One or both of Republic's plants may have switched to Interior Green, but I've no proof either way. The Medium Green callout originated in November 1944 when the AAF and the Navy began switching to that color as an option for cockpits and anti-glare panels. I wonder if it was used in late-production P-47Ns. My plans to plow into the P-47's archival correspondence have been set aside for other things - I hope one day to find the memos discussing Thunderbolt painting. Until then, I've no written documentation - just observations. Cheers, Dana
  22. Hi Moe, I've never found a good explanation as to why so many Kingfisher trainers were delivered in camouflage. Perhaps the Navy was hedging its bets, hoping to be ready if the trainers were suddenly necessary for combat patrols. I'm sure there's a memo somewhere... I know other trainers, particularly SNJs, were camouflaged by the Navy, but all of them seem to have been painted by field units rather than their respective factories. Cheers, Dana
  23. A few notes on OS2U colors that have come up since I wrote my Kingfisher book eleven years ago. First, about floats: All OS2U-1s were delivered with Vought floats. OS2U-2s bound for battleships and cruisers were delivered with Vought floats, while those delivered to training units and inshore patrol squadrons were delivered with Edo floats. All OS2U-3s were delivered with Edo floats. In service, the Vought floats did poorly in heavy seas and were eventually replaced by Edo floats. There were many changes to post-delivery color schemes, and only photos can indicate what we should be applying to our models. However, there are some extensive factory records that indicate how most of the Kingfishers appeared when delivered. All OS2U-1s were delivered with aluminum finish and Orange Yellow wing upper surfaces. Nearly all were delivered with complete unit markings and insignia. Note that the Orange Yellow wing color wrapped around the leading edge for 5% of the chord. The first eleven OS2U-2s (BuNos 2189 thru 2199) were delivered in similar highly visible colors (aluminum lacquer with Orange-Yellow wings), marked for inshore patrol squadrons, NAS Norfolk, or USS Concord. On 2 January 1941 Vought-Sikorsky issued Engineering Instruction 5194 to implement new painting instructions from BuAer dated 26 December 1940. Pending the Navy’s final decision on aircraft camouflage, the EI directed that beginning with BuNo 2200 OS2Us were to be delivered in overall aluminum color (eliminating the yellow on the wings) and eliminating all insignia and markings except for the four wing national insignia, the tail serial number and model designation, and (on the noses of 2190-2195, 2206-2210, and 2237-2238) Neutrality Patrol stars. The Navy reasoned that this simplified scheme would cost less and be more readily overpainted once an operational camouflage scheme was selected. Factory drawings were revised on 21 March, directing Vought painters to refer to drawing CV-58901 for new camouflage instructions. The new drawing did not include painting instructions for the next 97 OS2U-2s (serials 2200-2288 and 3073-3080) so our only evidence of how they left the factory comes from photos and a single Vought-Sikorsky letter. Here’s what I’ve found so far: 2222 – #30 – aluminum w/yellow wings 2224 – #32 – aluminum w/yellow wings 2227 – #35 – aluminum w/yellow wings 2230 – #38 – aluminum w/yellow wings 2233 – #41 – aluminum w/yellow wings 2239 – Vought-Sikorsky letter of 1 February 1941 notes that this aircraft will be the first factory-painted in the camouflage specified by BuAer on 26 December 1940 [Light Gray]. The scheme was expected to be painted on all subsequent aircraft. 2265 – #37 – Blue Gray camo w/yellow wings (colors modified after delivery?) 2278 – #62 – overall gray Drawing CV-58901 begins with OS2U-2 serial 3081, then omits several ranges of aircraft. The drawing presents two schemes: the “Type A” scheme depicted Blue Gray over Light Gray camouflage with four wing insignia, a national insignia on either side of the aft fuselage, and one-inch-high black serial number, designation, and “NAVY” on the vertical tail. (In practice the 1-inch tail markings were applied in white on Light Gray combat aircraft.) The “Type B” scheme was clearly intended for non-combat Kingfishers, though the overall color was Light Gray camouflage lacquer (no Orange Yellow wings). The four wing insignia were still there, but no fuselage insignia. The tail markings were now black, three inches high, with the aircraft serial and designation only. “U. S. NAVY” was on the aft fuselage in 6-inch-high black letters. (Besides noting the type of float provided, modelers should be aware that combat OS2U-2s and -3s carried extra fuel tanks, while training aircraft carried only the original single tank. The combat aircraft had the three teardrop bullet-proof fairings – one over the right wing, two over the left wing – while the trainers had a single fairing over the left wing.) Of the listed serials for the remaining OS2U-2 production, all were to be the “Type B” training scheme: 3081-3082 (2) Type B 3083-3090 (8) Not listed 3091-3106 (16) Type B 3107-3109 (3) Not listed 3110-3127 (18) Type B 3128-3139 (12) Not listed Surprisingly, slightly more than half of the OS2U-3s (343 versus 338) were delivered in Light Gray camouflage lacquer. The markings show that 106 of these were intended for combat duties, with the remaining 237 carrying trainer markings. Additionally, many of the Blue Gray camouflaged aircraft were sent to training units. Since there’s no evidence that any of these aircraft received Orange Yellow wings at the factory, the highly visible wing colors must have been added at depots or in the field. Note the last 24 aircraft delivered in Light Gray; as all served in combat units, their camouflage schemes must have been modified after leaving the factory. 5284-5365 (82) Type A markings, but overall Light Gray 5366-5602 (237) Type B 5603-5940 (338) Type A 5941-5964 (24) Type A markings, but overall Light Gray 5965 Not listed 5966-5989 Netherlands East Indies Although the factory drawings showed six national insignia on the Type A aircraft, photos show those markings were often modified to delete the insignia from above the right wing and from below the left wing. An 8 May 1941 photo of Vought’s service apron shows Light Gray Kingfishers with the two wing insignia and two fuselage insignia; all carry the three teardrop fuel tank cap covers of combat aircraft. The drawings never added fuselage insignia to trainers; a 28 October 1941 photo of Vought’s engine test hardstand shows Light Gray OS2U-3s (including BuNo 5446) with the four wing insignia, no fuselage insignia, 3-inch tail markings, and 6-inch U. S. NAVY aft fuselage markings. Watch your photos to determine which insignia combination is appropriate for your model. Finally, the Navy experimented with several grades of aluminum powders and pastes, each of which gave a different finish. Painters also varied the amount of aluminum added to paint, in one case adding 4 ounces instead of 6 ounces to improve the appearance of the finished product. Cheers, Dana
  24. Hi Jennings, I think we've ALL been confusing Blue Gray and Dark Blue for many years. For one thing, Dark Blue doesn't appear by name in any of the Navy specs or TOs. There is also at least one order insisting that aircraft be painted Blue Gray and that the paint should match the color chip for Dark Blue - name's the same, but the color is totally different. Additionally, most (nearly all) early applications of Blue Gray used field-mixed paints; Navy squadrons felt the color was too light anyway, so often mixed a darker shade to make up for the difference. And finally, the blue value swings in contemporary color films leave us all wondering what we're looking at. I've yet to see a contemporary color photo that I can point to and say that I'm definately looking at Dark Blue. At least if we know we're looking for two different colors, we may start finding evidence to help decide what we're looking at... Cheers, Dana
  25. Hi All, That's one of the first 306 Corsairs built by Vought - it still has the flat canopy and the Brownscope periscope mounted atop the windscreen. The original image is a 4x5 Kodachrome tranny in the Rudy Arnold Collection at the National Air and Space Museum. There are variations in the aircraft color between images - most variations due to the sun's position, but some variations seem to be the result of camera exposure and film processing and storage. In all of the shots, the upper camouflage is bluer than what we would expect from Blue Gray. I believe the paint was a rarely noted substutute for Blue Gray called Dark Blue, matched to the deck color prescribed for carriers. In Jack Elliott's color chart above, Blue Gray #2 is probably actually Dark Blue. (I know - we should never base a color identification on a color photo. I'm hedging my bets here by use of the words "I believe.") I've never found more than a fingernail sized chip of Dark Blue, but there are several 4x6 original paint chips of Blue Gray in the National Archives. If anyone here ever wants to look at those chips, let me know and I'll be happy to share the record group, series, and box numbers so that you can look them up. (There are copies down town and at College Park - and of course , everything depends on the Archives reopening one day!) As for the chips showing through the wear on the wing (the original question), there are three posibilities for an early Birdcage: - Yellow zinc chromate, if only a single primer coat was applied to the wing, - pink or "salmon", if two primer coats were applied to the wing, or - white, if the smoothing putty was applied over the primer or the primer was worn through to the putty. Originally, the Corsair's leading edges were smoothed just like Mustang wings. The factory smoothing was ended sometime during 1944. Enjoy the model, whichever paint variation you chose, and best wishes for a Merry Christmas! Dana
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